An anthropometric survey of 41 variables (weight, height, 10 linear, 4 breadth, 22 craniofacial, 2 skinfold, and testicular volume), including multivariate discriminant analysis, was undertaken on 110 mentally retarded males (39 with and 71 without the fra(X) syndrome). volume), with the greater measurements (excluding bizygomatic diameter) found in fra(X) males. Sitting height, knee-buttock length, middle finger length, and hand length were negatively correlated (< .05) with age, whereas bizygomatic diameter, ear length, and ear width were positively correlated (< .05) with age and head circumference, head length, and outer canthal distance were positively correlated buy Paradol (< .05) with fra(X) chromosome expression in the fra(X) males. Triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were negatively correlated (< .05) with age, whereas ankle breadth, ear length, ear width, and nose length were positively correlated (< .05) in the non-fra(X) males. Discriminant analysis of 34 fra(X) and 71 non-fra(X) males resulted in a discriminant function based on 6 of 17 anthropometric variables and age. In the discriminant analysis, patients with the fra(X) syndrome were distinguished from mentally retarded males without the fra(X) syndrome at an overall correct classification rate of 97.1% in our sample. The 6 anthropometric variables in the discriminant function were the Z scores representing testicular volume, ear width, head breadth, bizygomatic diameter, hand breadth, and hand length. Additional research is needed to test the usefulness of these variables in screening mentally retarded males for the fra(X) syndrome. is the mean of the normal control individual, and X is the measurement of the subject. Normative values were obtained from published sources [Herskovits, 1930; Krogman, 1970; National Center for Health Statistics, 1970, 1972, 1974a,b, 1979, 1987, Hajnis, 1974; Feingold and Bossert, 1974; Tanner and Whitehouse, 1975; Piedade et al., 1977; Snyder et al., 1977; U.S. Army, 1980; Farkas, 1981; Malina and Roche, 1983; Roche and Malina, 1983a,b]. T Assessments were undertaken around the Z score data to determine if significant anthropometric differences exist between fra(X) and non-fra(X) males. Correlation analysis was also undertaken around the anthropometric variables versus fra(X) chromosome expression and age for the fra(X) males and the buy Paradol variables versus age for the non-fra(X) males. A forward stepwise method of discriminant analysis [Enslein et al., 1977] was performed on 30 of the anthropometric Z score variables and age of individuals from 2 groups of mentally retarded males: 13 white patients with the fra(X) syndrome and 50 white males without the fra(X) syndrome. To test the accuracy of discrimination based on the analysis of 13 fra(X) and 50 non-fra(X) males, a second group of 21 white fra(X) and 21 non-fra(X) syndrome males was analyzed with discriminant analysis. Subsequently, a third discriminant analysis was performed on 17 of the anthropometric variables from a combined total of 34 white fra(X) syndrome patients and 71 white males without the fra(X) syndrome. RESULTS Physique 1 shows the average Z score data represented by bar buy Paradol graphs of the 41 anthropometric variables on all fra(X) and non-fra(X) males. Table I shows numerical Z score data for the variables on all mentally retarded males with and without the fra(X) syndrome. The mean Z scores of the fra(X) syndrome males fell between ?2.00 and 8.38 for bizygomatic diameter and testicular volume, respectively. Around the mentally retarded males without fra(X) syndrome, the imply Z scores fell between ?2.64 and 2.26 for hand breadth and testicular volume, respectively. Abnormal anthropometric variables (?2 or 2 SD) in fra(X) males were testicular volume (mean Z score of 8.38), ear width (3.19), ear length (2.54), and bizygomatic diameter (?2.00). In the mentally retarded males without the fra(X) syndrome, hand breadth (mean Z score of ?2.64), sitting height (?2.07), and testicular volume (2.26) were abnormal. Fig. 1 Bar graphs representing Rabbit polyclonal to PRKAA1 common Z score values for buy Paradol all those mentally retarded males with and without the fra(X) syndrome. TABLE I Z Score Data (imply SD) for Anthropometric Variables for Mentally Retarded Males With and Without Fra(X) Syndrome Significant differences (< .05) buy Paradol were found between fra(X) and non-fra(X) males with respect to 18 measurements (weigth, height, 7 linear, 2 breadth, 5 craniofacial, subscapular skinfold, and testicular volume), with the greater measurements (excluding bizygomatic diameter) found in the fra(X) males (Table I). Sitting height, knee-buttock length, middle finger length, and hand length were negatively correlated (< .05) with age, whereas bizygomatic diameter, ear length, and ear width were positively correlated (< .05) with age, and head circumference, head length, and outer canthal distance were positively correlated (< .05) with fra(X) chromosome expression in the fra(X) males. Triceps.