HIV infection continues to be associated with pro-atherogenic lipid profiles including elevated triglycerides (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) but also with decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in both men and women [1-3]. LDL particles (LDL-p) or HDL particles (HDL-p). Greater small LDL-p has been associated with increased Rosiglitazone CVD risk in some studies from the RP11-403E24.2 general population [7 8 while lower HDL-p (especially small HDL-p) has been associated with CVD risk [9 10 Few studies have examined whether HIV and HAART use are associated with lipoprotein particle concentrations after adjusting for Rosiglitazone standard lipids. A small study from the pre-HAART era found that the association of HIV with small LDL-p was attenuated after adjustment for TG . The few studies from the HAART era that have found an association between HIV and lipoprotein particle concentrations did not adjust for standard lipids [12 13 this adjustment is desirable as elevations in TG are common after HAART initiation . Using a large cohort of HIV-infected and Rosiglitazone uninfected women we quantified the association HIV contamination and current HAART use had with LDL-p and HDL-p and examined whether any associations found persisted after adjustment for standard lipids. To quantify particle concentrations we employed the same nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy technique used by published HIV studies in the HAART era so that our findings could be compared to other studies. METHODS Study Populace The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is usually a multicenter prospective cohort study that was established in 1994 to investigate the progression of HIV in women with and at risk for HIV. A total of 3 766 women (2 791 HIV-infected and 975 HIV-uninfected) was enrolled in either 1994-95 (n=2 623 or 2001-02 (n=1 143 from six United States locations (Bronx Brooklyn Chicago Los Angeles San Francisco and Washington DC). Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk factors were comparable between HIV-infected and uninfected women [14 15 An institutional review board approved study protocols and consent forms and each study participant gave written informed consent. At each Rosiglitazone semiannual visit participants undergo a comprehensive physical examination provide biological specimens for CD4 cell count and HIV RNA determination and complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire which collects information on demographics disease characteristics and specific antiretroviral therapy use. Standard lipid and lipoproteins are measured annually from fasting samples using the Roche Modular System (Roche Diagnostics Corporation Indianapolis IN) at a centralized laboratory (Mission Diagnostics Baltimore MD). From April 2004 to March 2007 NMR data which included high volume assessment of lipoprotein size concentration and subclass focus were gathered at an individual study go to (described eventually as the index go to) on a complete of 1410 individuals signed up for WIHS coronary disease or metabolic substudies [16 17 Of the 1410 females 401 (28%) had been HIV-uninfected 146 (10%) had been HIV-infected and HAART-na?ve up through and like the index go to and 863 (61%) had been HIV-infected and reported initiating HAART at or ahead of their index go to. One-hundred and seventy-five from the 863 females who initiated HAART didn’t survey using HAART in the half a year before the index go to and had been excluded from analyses. Our last study inhabitants was made up of the 1077 females (361 [90% of 401] HIV-uninfected 128 [88% of 146] HIV-infected/HAART na?ve and 588 [85% of 688 = 863-175] HIV-infected/in HAART) who all had complete data in all covariates appealing (described below). Principal Final results Lipoprotein particle focus and subclass focus were approximated from newly thawed plasma examples using an computerized proton NMR spectroscopic assay (LipoScience Raleigh NC) as previously defined . Particle concentrations of total LDL (nmol/L) little LDL (nmol/L) total HDL (μmol/L) and little HDL (μmol/L) had been analyzed. Principal Exposures This is of HAART was led with the DHHS/Kaiser -panel [DHHS/Kaiser 2008] suggestions and is thought as the reported usage of three or even more antiretroviral medicines one of that has to be always a protease.