Supplementary Materials Supplementary Table 1 Urea and creatinine concentrations in 4 foals with severe kidney injury because of infection JVIM-34-1007-s001. hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and serious azotemia (Supplementary Desks 1 and 2). Urinalysis demonstrated hyposthenuria (USG, 1.006), moderately increased fractional excretion of sodium (6.14%; guide range, 0.02%\1%) and severely increased gamma\glutamyltransferase (GT)\to\creatinine proportion (214.7 IU/g; guide range, <25?IU/g). Serologic microscopic agglutination check (MAT; performed at ZOBA, Middle for Zoonoses, Pet Bacterial Antimicrobial and Illnesses, School of Bern, CH) demonstrated elevated titer for (1:800) and (1:800), whereas serology from the mare was detrimental for recognition of leptospira antibodies. Ultrasonography from the kidneys was unremarkable. Treatment contains IV liquid therapy using 0.9% sodium chloride (100?mL/kg/d, accompanied by a progressive decrease; Natrium chloratum ?Bichsel?, Grosse Apotheke Dr. G. Bichsel AG, Interlaken, CH), sucralfate (20?mg/kg PO q6h; Sucralan, G.L. Pharma GmbH, Lannach, CH), penicillin (20?000?IU/kg IV q6h; Penicillin Natrium Streuli advertisement us. veterinarian., Streuli Pharma AG, Uznach, CH) for 7?times accompanied by 3?weeks of PO doxycycline (10 mg/kg q12h; Primadox 50 advertisement us. veterinarian., ufamed AG, Sursee, CH). Through the initial 3?times, the foal remained was and lethargic not nursing the mare. On time 4, the foal's general condition improved and regular medical resumed. The foal and mare had been stabled through the treatment period and monitoring included daily fat dimension, physical evaluation, and repeated evaluation of serum biochemistry variables. Azotemia resolved within 7?days (Supplementary Table 1) and the foal was discharged 12?days after demonstration to the hospital. One year later on, the foal was offered again to the hospital for evaluation of a traumatic injury to its lower leg and was in a good general condition. 2.2. Case 2 A 2\month\aged Swiss Warmblood filly was offered for evaluation of sudden onset lethargy and unwillingness to nurse. Upon demonstration, the foal was dull but vital indicators were within normal limits. Respiratory sounds were slightly improved on auscultation. Laboratory evaluation disclosed microcytic anemia, slight hyponatremia, Erastin hypochloremia, hypoalbuminemia, improved serum amyloid A concentration, as well as severe azotemia (Supplementary Furniture 1 and 2). The Erastin urine was isosthenuric (USG, 1.008), fractional excretion of sodium (27.8%; research range, 0.2%\1%), potassium (441.6%; research range, 15%\65%), and chloride (44.05%; research Erastin range, 0.04%\4%) were markedly increased and GT\to\creatinine ratio was increased (35.18?IU/g). Actual\time PCR was positive for pathogenic Leptospira. The MAT serology showed improved titers for (1:1600), (1:400), and (1:200), whereas serology of the mare was bad for the detection of leptospira antibodies. Upon ultrasound examination of the kidneys, only mild renal enlargement and hypoechoic medulla were observed. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy using 0.9% sodium chloride (100?mL/kg/d for 6?days, followed by 50?mL/kg/d for 1?day time), sucralfate (20?mg/kg PO q6h), cefquinom (2 mg/kg IV q12h for 10?days; Cobactan IV 4.5% ad us. vet., MSD Animal Health GmbH, Luzern, CH), followed by doxycycline (10 mg/kg PO q12h for 3?weeks). Twenty\four hours after beginning treatment, the foal started nursing the mare. During the 1st 6?days, the foal remained quiet, but alert. By day time 7, the foal was brighter and more active. During the 1st 7?days, the mare and foal were Pgf stabled Erastin on package rest with regular monitoring (daily excess weight measurement, physical examinations, repeated evaluation of serum biochemistry variables). Azotemia progressively decreased, but failed to handle completely during 10?days of hospitalization, and serum creatinine concentration was still mildly increased at discharge (Supplementary Desk 1). The foal was discharged in an excellent general condition, but was shed to follow\up then. 2.3. Case 3 A 2\month\previous Swiss Warmblood colt was presented for evaluation of unwillingness and lethargy to nurse of just one 1?day’s length of time. Upon presentation, the foal was alert and tranquil, but not medical the mare. Essential signs had been within normal limitations. Lab evaluation disclosed microcytic anemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum amyloid A focus, and azotemia (Supplementary Desks 1 and 2). The urine was isosthenuric (USG, 1.008). True\period PCR was positive for pathogenic leptospira. The MAT serology from the foal demonstrated elevated titers for (1:400), (1:400), (1:200), (1:100), and serology from the mare was detrimental for the recognition of leptospira antibodies. No abnormalities had been detected on stomach ultrasound evaluation. Treatment contains IV liquid therapy using 0.9% sodium chloride (100?mL/kg/d for 6?times, accompanied by 50?mL/kg/d for 1?time), sucralfate (20?mg/kg PO q6h), cefquinom (2 mg/kg IV q12h for 7?times), accompanied by doxycycline (10 mg/kg PO q12h for 3?weeks). 1 day after initiation of treatment, the foal was alert and bright.