One fundamental axiom for project plan and schedule relates to the notion that time float will be reduced following its consumption. does not delay project completion time, a lag of its start time to a degree slightly buy CZC24832 greater than the total float does. This analysis reveals different types of total float that correspond to different ways of usage. From this, we offer definitions for translation total float and prolongation total float that deviate from traditional conventions regarding the uniqueness of total float. 1. Introduction Current trends in production are characterized by an increasingly intense competition in sectors buy CZC24832 dependent on time. George  first regarded time as a source of competitive advantage, thereby prompting managers to emphasize the importance of time performance in project management [2C4]. Many researchers have explored time-based competition [5C7], which consists of several time-related concepts. These concepts include processing time, setup time, zero time, and just-in-time delivery . Careful planning is antecedent to the achievement of competitive advantages related to time. Related to this, multiple theories and industry practices Rabbit Polyclonal to TNF Receptor II have shown that time float is a key factor for developing such a plan [9C14]. An activity’s time float not only signifies the degree to which that activity is important to a project but also reflects the project’s structural properties and guides project plan and schedule. Given its import, time float has long been considered as an important parameter for project optimization. Similar to its counterpart in the field of geometry (e.g., the parallel axiom in Euclidean geometry), one fundamental axiom of project plan and schedule stipulates that an activity’s time float will be reduced following its consumption. However, we reveal an anomaly that an activity’s time float increases rather than decreases while it is being consumed. This contradicts the fundamental axiom of time float. Furthermore, as a source of competitive advantage, an increase in time float following consumption may reflect the possibility that other special sources may increase following consumption. Given these findings, the anomaly may provide valuable insight into resource optimization. Therefore, in this paper, we empirically explore the time float anomaly with the goal of project optimization. The anomaly described above appears in complex projects, such as projects with generalized precedence relations (GPRs). The GPRs are temporal constraints that mandate that the starting/finishing times of a pair of activities be separated by a minimum or maximum amount of time. This anomaly contradicts not only the time float axiom but also several current approaches to project optimization. For instance, in resource and duration optimization, managers often reduce some resources (e.g., staff, funds, and materials for noncritical activities) to reduce costs or apply resources from noncritical activities to critical activities to expedite project completion. Reductions in resources for noncritical activities are constrained by the activities’ total floats. Reducing these resources to a substantial degree can cause prolongation of an activity’s duration. Conventional thinking dictates that the prolongation of an activity’s duration in excess of its total float delays project completion time. However, the discovery of the postconsumption total float increase anomaly seems to free managers from the need to reduce staff, funds, or materials and extends space to allow for resource optimization. However, this anomaly raises several questions. Not all activities cause total float to increase. What conditions are necessary for the anomaly to occur? Does an activity’s total float consistently increase in parallel with the prolongation of its duration? If not, when will total float not increase? How will total float change after the activity duration is buy CZC24832 prolonged? Although an activity’s float consumption may cause total float to increase, will its duration prolongation delay project completion time? If yes, by how much? The answers to these and other questions can significantly influence project plan and schedule. In this paper, we explain the anomaly and primarily focus on laws related to total floats and the prolongation of activity duration to address the questions above. These conclusions theoretically contribute to discussions related to total float and provide guidance related to project optimization with GPRs. 2. Previous Work.